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Kleberg refinery application of dimensional changes

She has an open biorepository project banking and analyzing the ENS tissue samples and the microbiome in patients with motility disorders. Mousa is also collaborating with Dr. Knight on evaluating the development of gut flora and enetric system in neonates. Neurogastroenterology and Motility Lab. Skin commensal analysis and interaction with keratinocytes, fibroblasts and mast cells; skin commensals and tolerance; skin commensals and mast cell maturation.

Our laboratory studies the main transporters regulating plasma levels of microbiome-derived small molecules. These transporters OAT1 and others , whcih we study in vitro and in vivo, mediate movement of small molecules into body tissues and body fluid compartments e. Some of the transported microbiome-derived molecules act as "uremic toxins" in kidney disease.

Degradomics; Proteomics; Biofluid assay development; Development of anti-parasitic and anti-fungal agents; Characterization and chemical inhibition of proteases at host-pathogen interface; Microbial Biofilms, Neutrophil Proteases. O'Donoghue Lab. Helicobacter pylori infection and innate immunity. Examination of the complex interactions between the host, H. Our goal is to characterize the gastric microbiota, which could be used as a biomarker to identify H.

We have performed microbiome sequencing in lean and obese mice with and without a variety genetic manipulations. We find that our KO mice display a marked change in microbiome composition. In addition, we have identified a peptide product of the bacteria overrepresented in the obese microbiome that leaks into the bloodstream, directly causes a hyperglycemic insulinopenic phenotype.

Olefsky Laboratory. Genomics of unicellular phototrophs especially cyanobacteria and small eukaryotes. Understanding how these organisms interact in mixed communities such as found in microbiomes. We are examining microbiome in a cohort of more than 5, genetically diverse rats that have been deeply phenotyped for behavioral and physiological traits. Kevin Patrick. Studying the relationship between gut, skin, and mouth microbiome and mood or anxiety disorders in individuals with acute psychiatric symptoms.

Laureate Institute for Brain Research. Application of multiple omics techniques to understand how to reshape microbial communities. Synthetic biology at the whole-microbiome level. Studies of microbes in the ocean and the mechanisms by which they become transferred to the atmosphere. Field investigation into how microbes impact clouds and precipitation processes. My laboratory focuses on identifying viral members of the human microbiome and in identifying their contributions to human health and disease. We are working on understanding the ecology of viruses and their consequences for our close contacts, characterizing their contributions to community antibiotic resistance, and developing model systems to understand how they respond to perturbations.

The Prince laboratory studies development of the innate immune response. Using both human and mouse models, we investigate macrophage development and function. Relevant to prematurity and preterm birth, our laboratory is examining how early exposures to microbial products affects immune function in fetal and neonatal cellular niches. Prince Lab. I am investigating the relationship between environmental factors e. I have a sample bank of longitudinal and twin cohorts for omics and the microbiome studies.

I am currently conducting a pilot study of the gut microbiome on monozygotic twins from the Vietnam Era Twin Study of Aging. We are examining the change in pediatric microbiomes associated with weight loss, changes in diet, and the use of probiotics. We are also interested in the development of the microbiome in early childhood and how different diets and environments affect this. Finally we are examining how differences in microbiome composition may affect other disease states such as anorexia and anxiety. Center for Healthy Eating and Activity Research.

The inflammatory bowel diseases IBD are triggered by an overactive immune response to the intestinal microflora. We aim to understand whether the exacerbated inflammation observed in integrin beta7 mice deficient mice and on a subset of patients IBD receiving integrin-blocking antibodies is triggered by an imbalance of the intestinal microflora. Brain Research of Neuropsychiatric Disorders Lab.

Evaluation of convergence in composition of microbiome communities across species, especially as related to disease and reproduction. Preventive Medicine, Nutritional Epidemiology, dietary intervention clinical trials, medicinal foods, and natural products. Regulation, biosynthesis and metabolomics of microbial elicited plant defenses as an untapped resource for diverse antimicrobial natural products. Use of crop plants as relevant models to understand the role of host biochemical responses in mediating predominant and agriculturally relevant microbiome-rhizosphere interactions.

The Schmelz Lab. In our laboratory we study host factors that mediate chronic liver diseases. In addition, we focus on microbial factors that change in response to liver injury and chronic liver disease and the consequences of intestinal dysbiosis on host biology.

We specifically are interested in the enteric microbiome, metagenome and transcriptome associated with liver disease. We use in vitro and in vivo technologies to study various aspects of chronic liver disease. We specifically use animal models mimicking fatty liver disease, alcoholic and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis, toxic and cholestatic models of liver disease. In addition, a very important part of our laboratory is a translational aspect to identify targets for therapy and to generate interventions that are able to prevent or treat liver disease in patients. I am interested in studying relationships between the gut microbiome and human behaviors and cardiometabolic disease and cancer risk.

Dorothy Sears Lab. I am an aquatic ecologist studying how climate affects the interactions between micro-organisms and other members of their food webs, and their roles in chemical cycles and ecosystem processes. I have studied and am interested in how the human microbiome is associated with HIV disease pathogenesis and immune function, including end organ damage. In the past I have worked on bioinformatics related with the microbiome. My current research interests are in systems biology and systems medicine.

Uncovered coordination of metabolic states among distant bacteria within biofilm communities.

Discovered electrical cell-to-cell signaling in microbial biofilm communities. I am collaborating with Dr. Rob Knight on examining how the microbiome impacts treatments and outcomes in patients with cardiovascular disease. Assessing changes in the microbiome in patients with congestive heart failure and how the microbiome may predict readmission for heart failure.

Examining how dietary changes impact the microbiome in patients after myocardial infarction. Taub Cardiovascular Research Lab. The Thackray lab is interested in understanding the role of the microbiome in Women's Health and reproductive disorders. We recently demonstrated that metabolism and the gut microbiome is altered in a mouse model of polycystic ovary syndrome PCOS using 16S rRNA gene sequencing and metabolic profiling.

We are currently investigating whether the gut microbiome plays a causal role in PCOS and the mechanisms involved. Our lab is investigating intestinal infections in the nematode C. In particular we study a natural pathogen of C. We also study surveillance immunity against bacterial pathogens. Troemel Lab. Tsuang is interested in the connection between the microbiome and neuropsychiatric disorders. Current research efforts focus on fundamental studies of cell surface sugars called sialic acids and their roles in biology, evolution, and disease—particularly multiple differences between humans and our closest evolutionary cousins, which are relevant to understanding unique aspects of human biology and disease.

Sialic acids are both metabolized and expressed by components of the microbiome. I am broadly interested in general infectious diseases, and specifically in tropical infectious diseases.

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Our research sites in the Peruvian Amazon facilitate answering broad questions about microbial diversity and infectious diseases, particularly how the intestinal microbiome affects tropical diseases such as malaria, leptospirosis and tuberculosis. Vinetz Tropical Disease Laboratory. The Webster lab is interested in the dysregulation of glucose and lipid metabolism and the origin of insulin resistance in obesity, fatty liver disease and steatohepatitis. We are also interested in the role of dendritic cells in innate immunity and insulin resistance.

Webster Lab. We perform basic and translational research in the intersection of circadian biology, gut physiology, and the gut microbiome and how the three interact to cause obesity, diabetes, steatohepatitis, dyslipidemia, and other associated metabolic disorders. Specifically, we study the reciprocal interaction between the luminal environment both the gut microbiome and the content and intestinal cells. Our research focuses on single-cell genomics, including method development and applications.

We were funded by the NIH Human Microbiome Project in for method development related to single-cell genome sequencing. We also have been developing efficient and unbiased method for metagenomics sequencing of environmental microbial samples with very limited materials. Host defenses and airway microbial pathogenesis. How inhalation of cigarette smoke and e-cigarette vapor change underlying microbiomes in the host, and the host-pathogen interaction. Crotty Alexander Lab. Our research environments include high elevation oligotrophic lakes and marine pelagic environments.

Our previous focus has been on functional gene and microbial species composition analyses in the context of chemical gradients and organic compound transformations. More recently we have also been examining metatranscriptomes and metagenomes from both lake and marine environments.

Division of Epidemiology. As a pediatric infectious diseases physician, my role has been to investigate therapy, primarily for bacterial infections. Introducing undergraduate students to the concept of microbiomes, their complexity, importance, and to methods of study. We study recurrent tonsillitis in humans, which is caused by a bacterial infection and may be associated with microbiome changes.

We also extensively study human CD4 T cell and B cell biology in the context of infectious diseases and vaccines. Shane Crotty. I am a clinician-scientist gastroenterologist with longstanding interests in the mucosal-luminal interface of the esophagus, stomach, small and large intestine including interactions of food, microbes and the mucosa with a focus on the epithelium.

I am particularly interested in the link between brain and behavior and the potential mediating role of inflammation and immune factors and possible interaction with the microbiome. Carbohydrate antigens and their roles in microbe-host co-evolution. Virus-mucus interactions. Primate innate immune receptors that target self and microbial non-self glycans. Anti-glycan immunity in the male and female reproductive tracts. Comparative primate milk oligosaccharides. Gagneux Lab. We have expertise in cyanobacterial growth, genetics, gene regulation, synthetic biology, and transcriptomics.

We routinely use fluorescent reporter genes to monitor gene expression in individual cells in a population. Some of our recent research is focused on using a random barcode labeled transposon library and deep sequencing to identify cyanobacterial genes related to cyanobacterial grazing. As a neonatologist, I am interested in establishing collaborations with other scientists to facilitate research into how the microbiome is established and develops in the neonate. Currently, I am working with Dr.

Stephanie Fraley to develop nucleic acid sequencing technology with machine learning for the rapid and accurate diagnosis of neonatal sepsis. I am currently involved in projects aimed at characterizing the urogenital microbiome in women with lower urinary tract symptoms including incontinence and recurrent urinary tract infections.

Emily Lukacz. Biological basis of psychiatric disorders, biological predictors of treatment outcomes in psychiatric disorder. I have broad familiarity with nonhuman primate behavioral ecology and natural history, potentially useful for interpretation of microbiome adaptations. Predictive biomarkers related to cancer immunotherapy, with particular interest in microbiome editing to facilitating response to immune checkpoint blockade.

Genomic analysis, including variant calling, de novo assembly, and phylogenetics, high-performance computing. Development of computational tools and analytical pipelines for the assembly, phylogenetic binning, functional annotation, and community analysis of microbial genomes and host-associated metagenomes. Eric Allen Lab. Technology commercialization with emphasis on translation of early stage technologies from the laboratory to the market. Jennifer Smith and her team of students and postdocs are marine community ecologists who focus on how humans impact coastal ecosystems.

The Smith lab uses a variety of tools including field and laboratory experiments to determine how different factors influence benthic community structure, organismal ecophysiology, species diversity and microbial ecology from coral reefs around the world. Faculty More than UC San Diego professors and research scientists have elected to join the Center for Microbiome Innovation since its launch in These researchers lead teams working at the leading edge of many interrelated areas, including microbiology, cell and molecular biology, computer science, physical sciences, biomedical engineering, electrical engineering, pharmacology, clinical care, ecology, oceanography, anthropology and more.

Neural Interaction Laboratory. Rachel Dutton Biological Sciences Microbial community manipulation and design. The Dutton Lab. Jack Gilbert Professor Pediatrics, Scripps Institution of Oceanography Ecology, evolution, and metabolic dynamics of microbial ecosystems from environments including built environments, oceans, rivers, soils, air, plants, animals, and humans.

Terry Hwa Professor Physics, Molecular Biology The Hwa lab employs novel theoretical and experimental methods to develop quantitative, mechanistic models describing the growth and interaction dynamics of gut microbiota. Laboratory for Quantitative Microbiology.

Paul Jensen Scripps Institution of Oceanography Comparative genomics and microbial chemical ecology for discovery of natural products from marine microbes. Jensen Website. Nizet Lab. Bernhard Palsson Bioengineering Metabolic network modeling, systems biology, and development of analysis procedures for genome-scale models. Systems Biology Research Group. We also extensively study human CD4 T cell and B cell biology in the context of infectious diseases and vaccines. Shane Crotty. I am a clinician-scientist gastroenterologist with longstanding interests in the mucosal-luminal interface of the esophagus, stomach, small and large intestine including interactions of food, microbes and the mucosa with a focus on the epithelium.

I am particularly interested in the link between brain and behavior and the potential mediating role of inflammation and immune factors and possible interaction with the microbiome. Carbohydrate antigens and their roles in microbe-host co-evolution. Virus-mucus interactions. Primate innate immune receptors that target self and microbial non-self glycans.

Anti-glycan immunity in the male and female reproductive tracts. Comparative primate milk oligosaccharides.

Faculty | Center for Microbiome Innovation

Gagneux Lab. We have expertise in cyanobacterial growth, genetics, gene regulation, synthetic biology, and transcriptomics. We routinely use fluorescent reporter genes to monitor gene expression in individual cells in a population. Some of our recent research is focused on using a random barcode labeled transposon library and deep sequencing to identify cyanobacterial genes related to cyanobacterial grazing.

As a neonatologist, I am interested in establishing collaborations with other scientists to facilitate research into how the microbiome is established and develops in the neonate. Currently, I am working with Dr. Stephanie Fraley to develop nucleic acid sequencing technology with machine learning for the rapid and accurate diagnosis of neonatal sepsis. I am currently involved in projects aimed at characterizing the urogenital microbiome in women with lower urinary tract symptoms including incontinence and recurrent urinary tract infections.

Emily Lukacz. Biological basis of psychiatric disorders, biological predictors of treatment outcomes in psychiatric disorder. I have broad familiarity with nonhuman primate behavioral ecology and natural history, potentially useful for interpretation of microbiome adaptations. Predictive biomarkers related to cancer immunotherapy, with particular interest in microbiome editing to facilitating response to immune checkpoint blockade.

Genomic analysis, including variant calling, de novo assembly, and phylogenetics, high-performance computing. Development of computational tools and analytical pipelines for the assembly, phylogenetic binning, functional annotation, and community analysis of microbial genomes and host-associated metagenomes. Eric Allen Lab. Technology commercialization with emphasis on translation of early stage technologies from the laboratory to the market. Jennifer Smith and her team of students and postdocs are marine community ecologists who focus on how humans impact coastal ecosystems.

The Smith lab uses a variety of tools including field and laboratory experiments to determine how different factors influence benthic community structure, organismal ecophysiology, species diversity and microbial ecology from coral reefs around the world. Faculty More than UC San Diego professors and research scientists have elected to join the Center for Microbiome Innovation since its launch in These researchers lead teams working at the leading edge of many interrelated areas, including microbiology, cell and molecular biology, computer science, physical sciences, biomedical engineering, electrical engineering, pharmacology, clinical care, ecology, oceanography, anthropology and more.

Neural Interaction Laboratory. Rachel Dutton Biological Sciences Microbial community manipulation and design. The Dutton Lab. Jack Gilbert Professor Pediatrics, Scripps Institution of Oceanography Ecology, evolution, and metabolic dynamics of microbial ecosystems from environments including built environments, oceans, rivers, soils, air, plants, animals, and humans.

Terry Hwa Professor Physics, Molecular Biology The Hwa lab employs novel theoretical and experimental methods to develop quantitative, mechanistic models describing the growth and interaction dynamics of gut microbiota. Laboratory for Quantitative Microbiology. Paul Jensen Scripps Institution of Oceanography Comparative genomics and microbial chemical ecology for discovery of natural products from marine microbes. Jensen Website. Nizet Lab. Bernhard Palsson Bioengineering Metabolic network modeling, systems biology, and development of analysis procedures for genome-scale models.

Systems Biology Research Group. Manuela Raffatellu Professor Pediatrics Professor Raffatellu has experise in immunology, microbiology and infectious diseases. Julie Ryu. Fecal microbiota transplant FMT procedures. Larry Smarr Calit2, Computer Science and Engineering Computational infrastructure for collaborative, data-intensive research on microbiome-associated disease, and health, from the individual scale to entire populations.

Larry Smarr Website. Karsten Zengler Bioengineering, Pediatrics Modeling communities of bacteria; reading out transcriptomes and translatomes; collecting live microbial cells from the environment to develop building blocks for synthetic microbial communities. Zengler Website. Allen lab. Ilkay Altintas Chief Data Science Officer San Diego Supercomputer Center Next generation workflows and analytical tools for optimized reproducible processing of biomedical big data on heterogeneous computational and data infrastructure.

Rommie E. Amaro Chemistry and Biochemistry State of the art computational methods and applications for multi-scale dynamics from molecules to cells, drug discovery and identification of new druggable sites on flexible targets. The Amaro Lab. Anderson Lab. Vineet Bafna Computer Science and Engineering Advanced genomic and proteomic research for deeper understanding of microbiome function.

Vineet Bafna Website. Kim Barrett Distinguished Professor Medicine General interest in the role of the microbiome in digestive diseases; publications on probiotics as well as gut-brain-microbiome axis; infectious diarrhea; gut transport and barrier function. Doug Bartlett. Ethan Bier Professor Cell and Developmental Biology We are beginning to look at the role of bacterial toxins in altering the microbiome.

Bier Lab. Cinnamon Bloss Assistant Professor Psychiatry, Family Medicine and Public Health My expertise is in the design and execution of empirical studies to inform ethical issues raised by new biomedical technologies. The Bloss Lab. Bode Lab. Brigid Boland Assistant Professor Gastroenterology I primarily have translational, clinical, and basic research expertise in inflammatory bowel disease. Jeff Bowman Assistant Professor Scripps Institution of Oceanography My lab is focused on several different aspects of microbial ecology, with a focus on marine microbial ecology in coastal and polar environments.

Bowman Lab. Clarke Center for Human Imagination I create interactive visualizations of large scale, evolutionary, symbiotic, phenomena. John Chang Associate Professor of Medicine Medicine Our lab is focused on mechanisms underlying T lymphocyte fate specification and function in the context of microbial infections and inflammatory bowel disease. Chang Lab. Hiu Chu Assistant Professor Pathology The Chu lab is interested in the complex interactions between the trillions of diverse microbes and the host in the mammalian gastrointestinal tract. Chu Lab. Daugherty Lab. Adam DeConde Assistant Professor Surgery My clinical expertise lies in the medical and surgical treatment of chronic rhinosinusitis.

Donald Durden MD, PhD, Professor Pediatrics Molecular biology of macrophage host parasite interaction including macrophage-microbiota interaction in innate and adaptive immune responses in pediatric disease. Durden laboratory. Peter Ernst Professor, Director, Center for Veterinary Sciences and Comparative Medicine Pathology, Medicine My expertise is in mucosal immunology and examining the effect of gastrointestinal infection and the local microbiome on host responses.

Ernst Lab. William Fenical Distinguished Professor of Oceanography and Pharmaceutical Science Center for Marine Biotechnology and Biomedicine The Fenical lab has more than 25 years experience in the cultivation of bacteria and fungi in small and large scale. Fenical Lab. Fraley Lab. Wenxian Fu Assistant Professor Pediatrics Our research focuses on immune regulation of tissue homeostasis.

Richard Gallo Professor and Chairman Dermatology Discovery and analysis of the mechanism s of action by which bacteria resident on the skin surface influence epithelial and immune cell functions. Lena Gerwick Research Scientist Center for Marine Biotechnology and Biomedicine The laboratory expertise involve the evolution and functional aspects of cyanobacterial genomes and heterotrophic bacterial interaction, transcriptional regulation, biosynthesis of secondary metabolite pathways as well as development of techniques to further be able to enhance the discovery of secondary metabolite pathways by selective amplification of these followed by heterologous expression.

Gerwick laboratory. Partho Ghosh Lab. Susan Golden. David Gonzalez Assistant Professor Pharmacology and Pharmacy A critical next step in understanding the impact of the microbiome on health is the characterization of microbial biochemistry. Gabriel Haddad Professor and Chair Pediatrics Cardiovascular health and disease and hypoxia-relation to the microbiome. Nan Hao Assistant Professor Molecular Biology Systems biology analysis of microorganisms with a specific focus on yeasts. The Hao lab. Suzi Hong Associate Professor Psychiatry, Family Medicine and Public Health Immune responses to microbial stimulation and their implications in mood, emotion, cognition, and behavior.

Hong PNI Lab. Chun-Nan Hsu Associate Professor of Medicine Medicine Bioinformatics: Cell image analysis, genome-wide association studies, biological text mining, biological information integration. Alisa Huffaker Assistant Professor Cell and Developmental Biology The Huffaker lab examines the role of endogenous plant innate immune signaling pathways in mediating interactions with pathogenic and endophytic microbes. Huffaker Lab. Trey Ideker Professor Medicine, Bioengineering, Computer Science Our goal is to develop a new type of medicine based on knowledge of the complete physical and functional wiring of the cell, and systems biology.

Ideker Lab. Jaffe Lab for Underwater Imaging. Mohit Jain Assistant Professor Medicine, Pharmacology Microbiota introduce small molecule mediators into human circulation which in turn modulate human health and disease. Jain Laboratory. Michael Karin Distinguished Professor Pharmacology My lab was the first to show the role of intestinal barrier disruption in the pathogenesis of colorectal cancer.

Sergey Kryazhimskiy Assistant Professor Ecology, Behavior and Evolution Microbial experimental evolution, population genetics, systems biology, genomics. Vipin Kumar Professor Medicine Kumar laboratory has been interested in the identification and characterization of novel cellular and molecular mechanisms in immune regulation mediated by innate-like NK T cell subsets as well as regulatory CD4 and CD8 T cell subsets in inflammatory and autoimmune diseases.

Leadership

Michael Kurisu D. Project Apollo. Carolyn Kurle Assistant Professor Ecology, Behavior, and Evolution Section Our research focuses on reconstructing foraging ecology and movement patterns for wild vertebrates and we use those data to understand community ecology and how best to achieve species conservation. Kurle Lab. Laurent lab. Scott Lippman.

Lu Lab. Mali Lab. Michael Matthias Assistant Professor Medicine We apply culture-independent molecular, and 16S rDNA and shotgun metagenome sequencing approaches to study the relationships among Leptospira ecology and evolution, and spatial patterns of human disease. Stephen Mayfield Professor and Director of California Center for Algae Biotechnology Molecular Biology I work on orally available proteins and their impact on gut and overall health in both animals and humans. Metabolic Systems Biology. Meyer Lab. Siavash Mirarab Assistant Professor Electrical and Computer Engineering Computational methods for taxon identification and for taxonomic profiling of metagenomic samples.

Mirarab Lab. Bradley Moore Professor Pharmaceutical Sciences, Marine Biotechnology and Biomedicine The Moore research laboratory focuses on the discovery, characterization, and application of marine bacterial metabolites in human health. Anna Di Nardo Professor Dermatology Skin commensal analysis and interaction with keratinocytes, fibroblasts and mast cells; skin commensals and tolerance; skin commensals and mast cell maturation.

Di Nardo Lab. Sanjay Nigam Professor of Pediatrics, Medicine, and Cellular and Molecular Medicine Pediatrics Our laboratory studies the main transporters regulating plasma levels of microbiome-derived small molecules. Anthony O'Donoghue Assistant Professor Pharmaceutical Chemistry Degradomics; Proteomics; Biofluid assay development; Development of anti-parasitic and anti-fungal agents; Characterization and chemical inhibition of proteases at host-pathogen interface; Microbial Biofilms, Neutrophil Proteases.

Infectious diseases. Jerrold Olefsky, MD Associate Dean for Scientific Affairs, Professor of Medicine Endocrinology and Metabolism We have performed microbiome sequencing in lean and obese mice with and without a variety genetic manipulations. Palenik Lab. Abraham Palmer Professor and Vice Chair for Basic Research Psychiatry We are examining microbiome in a cohort of more than 5, genetically diverse rats that have been deeply phenotyped for behavioral and physiological traits. Palmer Lab. Martin Paulus Adjunct Professor Psychiatry Studying the relationship between gut, skin, and mouth microbiome and mood or anxiety disorders in individuals with acute psychiatric symptoms.

Kit Pogliano Biological Sciences Application of multiple omics techniques to understand how to reshape microbial communities. Pogliano Lab. Kimberly Prather Distinguished Chair in Atmospheric Chemistry, Director, Center for Aerosol Impacts on Chemistry of the Environment Chemistry and Biochemistry and Scripps Studies of microbes in the ocean and the mechanisms by which they become transferred to the atmosphere. Prather group. David Pride Assistant Professor, Director of Molecular Microbiology Pathology My laboratory focuses on identifying viral members of the human microbiome and in identifying their contributions to human health and disease.

Pride Laboratory. Brinda Rana Associate Adjunct Professor Psychiatry I am investigating the relationship between environmental factors e. Rana Lab. Jesus Rivera-Nieves Professor of Medicine Gastroenterology The inflammatory bowel diseases IBD are triggered by an overactive immune response to the intestinal microflora. Rivera Lab. Eric Schmelz Professor Cell and Developmental Biology Regulation, biosynthesis and metabolomics of microbial elicited plant defenses as an untapped resource for diverse antimicrobial natural products.

J and Subsection 5. Utility Master Plan: An element of the Comprehensive Plan that addresses a specific service or City system, including but not limited to the water system, wastewater system or the Airport. Master Plans address the technical planning issues associated with service delivery. Variance: A grant of relief to a person from the requirement of this Code when specific enforcement would result in unnecessary hardship. A variance, therefore, permits construction or development in a manner otherwise prohibited by this Code. Vehicle Service, Limited: Minor repair or replacement of parts, tires, tubes, or batteries, diagnostic services; minor motor services such as grease, oil, spark plug, or filter changing; tune-ups; emergency road services; replacement of starters, alternators, hoses, belts, and points; brake or muffler repair, wheel alignment, automobile washing, automobile upholstery, window-tinting, state inspections and associated minor repairs; routine servicing of air-conditioning systems, or other similar minor repair services.

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At the intersection of two streets, the dimensions of the visibility triangle shall be as per the dimensions specified in Subsection 4. At the intersection of a street with a private driveway, the visibility triangle shall be formed by the intersection of the street boundary line and the pavement line of the driveway, with the hypotenuse or third side of the triangle connecting the street pavement line and the pavement line of the driveway at distances from their intersection equal to 20 feet along the driveway and 30 feet along the street pavement line.

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A zoning district buffer yard may also contain a barrier such as a berm or wall where additional screening is necessary to achieve the desired level of buffering between land use activities as identified in Section 7. This Article establishes permitting and review authority under the Unified Development Code. Specific requirements for each type of application or permit are described in Article 3. Final actions made by the Assistant City Manager of Development Services shall be eligible for appeal to the Board of Adjustment in accordance with Section 3.

Final actions made by the Floodplain Administrator shall be eligible for appeal to the Building Code Board of Appeals in accordance with Section 3. Information regarding the establishment, membership and rules of procedure of the City Council is available in the City Charter and the Municipal Code. The following powers and duties shall be assigned to the Planning Commission under this Unified Development Code.

Additional powers and duties may be assigned under the City Charter and portions of the Municipal Code. The Planning Commission shall review and make a recommendation on the following development review procedures:. A Board of Adjustment is established in accordance with and controlled by the provisions of Chapter of the Texas Local Government Code. The Board of Adjustment may authorize in specific cases a variance from the terms of zoning provisions of this Code if the variance is not contrary to the public interest and, due to special conditions, literal enforcement would result in unnecessary hardship.

Appointment of members shall be made by the City Council. Members shall be residents of the City for a minimum of 12 months and shall be eligible voters. Members shall not be permitted to be elected officials , and a member shall resign from office on the Board of Adjustment upon filing as a candidate. City and county employees shall not be members of the Board of Adjustment. Terms of the Board of Adjustment shall be for two years. Members shall continue to serve until their successors are appointed. Vacancies in an unexpired term shall be filled by the City Council for the remainder of the term.

Each member of the Board of Adjustment shall be required to undergo training provided by the City prior to serving on the Board. In addition, the entire Board shall undergo such training every two years. The Chair of the Board of Adjustment shall be elected from the membership of the Board by a majority of the members. Regular meetings of the Board shall be held the fourth Wednesday of each month unless otherwise stated. Meetings may be called upon request of the Chair, upon written request of three members or upon notice from the Assistant City Manager of Development Services that a matter requires the consideration of the Board.

The Chair, or in his or her absence the Vice- Chair, may administer oaths and compel the attendance of witnesses. All meetings of the Board shall be open to the public. Four members shall constitute a quorum for the transaction of business and no decision shall be rendered without a concurring vote of a minimum of four members. Of the seven members, there shall be no more than five voting members. The two alternate members shall not be permitted to vote except when serving in the seat of an absent regular member. The Board shall adopt its own rules of procedure, provided that such rules shall not conflict with laws applicable to the Board of any provisions of the City Charter.

The Board shall keep minutes of its proceedings and records of its examinations and other official actions. All such meetings and records shall be immediately filed in the office of the Assistant City Manager of Development Services and shall be a public record. Information on the establishment, membership and proceedings of the Building Code Board of appeals is contained in Sec. The Building Code Board of Appeals shall take final action on floodplain variances that are authorized in this Unified Development Code. The respective Technical Construction Code Boards shall hear requests to allow deviations from the Technical Construction Codes in designated flood hazard areas.

The following powers and duties shall be assigned to the Landmark Commission under this Unified Development Code. Additional powers and duties may be assigned under other portions of the Municipal Code. The Landmark Commission shall review and make a recommendation on the following development review procedures:. Information regarding the establishment, membership and rules of procedure of the Landmark Commission is available in the Municipal Code. Each member of the Landmark Commission shall be required to undergo training provided by the City prior to serving on the Landmark Commission.

In addition, the entire Commission shall undergo such training every two years. A Technical Review Committee is established to provide necessary interdepartmental staff support for the coordinated and centralized technical review process for site plans, zoning applications that require site plans, various plat types and Planned Unit Developments.

The members of the Technical Review Committee shall be composed of professional staff persons from various City departments which have an interest in the development review process. The Technical Review Committee shall review and make a recommendation on the following development review procedures:. The Technical Review Committee shall take final action on the following development review procedures:.

The position of development review manager is created in the Department of Development Services which shall serve as chair of the Technical Review Committee and shall be responsible for all procedures, guidance, coordination, scheduling, and final actions of the Committee. In addition to the Chair, the Technical Review Committee shall be comprised of qualified professional staff from each of the departments and agencies which has an interest in the development review process and project managers assigned to coordinate project review and permitting by the Department of Development Services.

The position of project manager is hereby created within the Department of Development Services. Project managers shall coordinate applications, processing of applications, and application schedules between the City and applicants for various development approvals. The development review manager and members of the Technical Review Committee shall regularly communicate with project managers and conduct coordinated review with them based upon the schedule and project processing requirements presented by the project managers to the Technical Review Committee.

Project schedules and processing shall be generally consistent with published review procedures, compliant with all applicable codes, and may be amended as necessary to be consistent either with project needs and timetables, or City staff and review capabilities. When delay in a project schedule is likely or occurs, the project manager may intervene and set new deadlines, processing requirements and special meetings for the Technical Review Committee in order to maintain the project on schedule.

Issues between project managers and Technical Review Committee members shall be immediately brought to the Assistant City Manager of Development Services by either the project manager or the development review manager and shall be resolved according to the directive of the Assistant City Manager of Development Services. The Technical Review Committee shall meet as often as necessary to fulfill its duties or upon call of the Chair of the Committee to discuss and review the applications listed in Subsection 2.

When a subsequent review is required, all comments from such review shall be made available to the applicant for a minimum of three business days prior to consideration by the subsequent review body. An electronic recording will be made of all meetings. The discussion of each application will be concluded by the development review manager with a listing of the conclusions reached and the findings and recommendations of the reviewers regarding the application. The meeting notes of each meeting shall be filed with the Assistant City Manager of Development Services , and will include.

Review results for permit applications will be posted immediately by each Committee member on the Development Services electronic permitting system and as otherwise required by the development review manager or by the Assistant City Manager of Development Services. Additional powers and duties may be assigned under other portions of the Municipal Code and non-codified ordinances or by the City Manager. The Assistant City Manager of Development Services shall review and make recommendation on the following development review procedures:.

The Assistant City Manager of Development Services shall take final action on the following development review procedures, subject to appeal to the Board of Adjustment. The following powers and duties shall be assigned to the Building Official under this Unified Development Code. Additional powers and duties may be assigned under other portions of the Municipal Code and non-codified ordinances or by the Assistant City Manager of Development Services. The Building Official shall review and make a recommendation on the following development review procedures:.

The Building Official shall take final action on the following development review procedures, subject to appeal to the Board of Appeals. The following powers and duties may be assigned to the Assistant Director for Planning under this Unified Development Code. The Assistant Director for Planning, upon assignment by the Assistant City Manager of Development Service, shall review and make a recommendation on the comprehensive plan, zoning and rezoning requests, text amendments, landscape plans and permits, and on such other items as may be assigned.

Every official and employee with the City vested with the authority to issue a development approval under this Unified Development Code may not issue a development approval for any use, building or purpose that conflicts with any provision of this Unified Development Code. Any development approval issued in conflict with the provisions of this Unified Development Code shall be null and void.

Legislative decisions are those which establish or change regulations governing the use of development of land. Quasi-judicial decisions are those in which policies and regulations contained in the Comprehensive Plan, Utility Master Plans and this Unified Development Code are applied to specific development applications. Quasi- judicial decisions require the exercise of considerable discretion and may involve fact-finding or the imposition of conditions.

Administrative decisions are those in which policies and regulations contained in Comprehensive Plan, Utility Master Plans and this Unified Development Code are applied to specific development applications. Administrative decisions may require the exercise of limited discretion. Development applications required under this Unified Development Code shall be submitted on forms and in such numbers as required by the Assistant City Manager of Development Services.

The applicant shall attend a short check-in conference at the time of application submittal. The conference allows a member of Development Services staff to confirm that the appropriate application materials have been. Where an application lacks any required materials, the application shall not be accepted for further completeness or other review. Notice shall be required as shown in the table below. Notice for all procedures identified in the chart in paragraph 3. A above, excluding a replat without vacation, shall comply with the following:.

For review procedures requiring mailed notice, a notice of public hearing shall be sent by United States mail to owners of record of property within feet of the property under consideration, as determined by the most recent tax roll information from the appropriate Appraisal District. The notice shall be deposited in the mail before the 10th day before the public hearing date. A public hearing shall be required for development review procedures as shown in the table below:. A public hearing may be continued without additional public notification, provided that the motion to continue such hearing, made in open session, specifies the date and time when the hearing will be continued.

For any development review application approved with conditions, the applicant shall submit the corrected application addressing any comments or conditions made as part of the approval process to the Assistant City Manager of Development Services. Any applicant who disagrees with any final agency determinations in the form of written interpretations of this Code by a duly authorized administrative official is required to appeal the interpretation to the appropriate board designated to hear such appeals before seeking other relief.

Any party who disagrees with any staff interpretation of this Code or of the Building and Technical Construction Codes is required to obtain a written interpretation from the administrative official authorized to interpret the code in question prior to taking any other action. Absent a ruling on an appeal that overturns the staff interpretation, the staff interpretation shall stand in force until such time as it is amended by formal written determination of an official authorized to interpret the applicable Code provision or by a Code amendment. The process for making formal written determinations and the requirement for properly and timely filing appeals by aggrieved parties shall be vigorously enforced and supported within the City government.

Any Party aggrieved by a decision on matters regulated in one of the criteria manuals found in an Appendix of this Unified Development Code by a decision related to construction plans as provided in Subsection 3. A development review body may revoke a permit or approval, issued under the provisions of this Unified Development Code, in any case when there has been any false statement or misrepresentation as to a material fact in the application or plans on which the permit or approval was based or whenever the permit or approval was issued in error.

Amendments to the text of this Unified Development Code may be made from time to time in order to:. The Assistant City Manager of Development Services shall review the amendment and, considering the review criteria in Subsection 3. Staff shall maintain a list of pending text amendments and report to the Planning Commission on the status of staff review. Following notice in accordance with Subsection 3. In determining whether to approve, approve with modifications, or deny a proposed Unified Development Code text amendment, the applicable review bodies shall consider the following criteria:.

For the purpose of establishing and maintaining sound, stable and desirable development within the City , the Zoning Map may be amended:. Following the giving of public notice of an application for a Zoning Map amendment, the applicant shall not be permitted to amend the application either by increasing the area of the request or requesting a more intense zoning district than originally advertised.

The Assistant City Manager of Development Services shall review the application and, considering the review criteria in Subsection 3. In determining whether to approve, approve with conditions or deny a Zoning Map amendment, the applicable review bodies shall consider the following criteria:. For zoning map amendments affecting more than ten parcels of property, the City Council may, by a two-thirds vote, prescribe the type of notice to be given of the time and place of a public hearing held jointly by the City Council and Planning Commission.

If notice requirements are prescribed under this Subsection, the notice requirements prescribed by Subsection 3. The designation of an historic overlay zoning district or landmark may be amended or removed using the same procedure provided by this Section for its designation. Whenever a designated landmark or a contributing structure in a historic overlay zoning district has been demolished, removed, or altered in whole or in part, the Landmark Commission shall recommend to the City Council whether the designation should be retained or removed.

A planned unit development may be used to permit new or innovative concepts in land utilization, master-planned communities or mixed use developments that other zoning districts do not easily accommodate. A planned unit development also provides site-specific compatibility standards. While greater flexibility is given to allow special conditions or restrictions that would not otherwise allow the development to occur, procedures are established to ensure against misuse of increased flexibility.

Planned unit developments are appropriate in areas where the Comprehensive Plan reflects either the specific uses proposed in the planned unit development or where the Comprehensive Plan reflects mixed use as a land use category. The notice and review procedures in Section 3. In addition to the zoning map amendment criteria in Subsection 3. The form and content of the Master Site Plan shall be in sufficient detail to enable the City staff, Planning Commission and City Council to evaluate the proposal and ascertain that it meets the following criteria.

Adoption Date

The Assistant City Manager of Development Services shall prepare application forms, procedures, and submission requirements to ensure the necessary information is submitted. One copy of the approved Master Site Plan shall be submitted to the Department of Development Services for use in issuing building permits and other related permits. In addition, other copies of the approved Master Site Plan shall be supplied as directed by the City Manager, or the Assistant City Manager of Development Services , to other departments and agencies.

An approved Master Site Plan along with any conditions made at the time of approval shall be binding upon the applicant or any successors in interest in the planned unit development. Deviations from an approved Master Site Plan not in accordance with Subsection 3. An approved development plan shall expire 24 months after the date that the development plan was approved, unless:. Application for a special permit shall occur in conjunction with the submittal of a site plan. The City Council may not approve, approve with conditions, or deny a special permit application until after the site plan has been reviewed by the Technical Review Committee in accordance with the procedure in Section 2.

When a rezoning applicant has provided a site plan of sufficient detail to show the full extent of the proposed uses, the site plan shall also be reviewed by the Technical Review Committee prior to the Planning Commission making its final recommendation. The Technical Review Committee shall review the application and, considering the review criteria in Subsection 3. The Assistant City Manager of Development Services shall be responsible for making a recommendation in the event an agreement on a recommendation cannot be reached. A termination date may be imposed as a condition upon the granting of a special permit.

If so imposed, the special permit shall automatically terminate on that date unless extended as provided below. An extension of the expiration or termination of the special permit may be granted. All requests by an applicant for extensions shall be filed with the Assistant City Manager prior to the expiration or termination of the use. Following the notice and review procedures in Section 3. Thereafter, the applicant shall apply for a new special permit.

A special permit use that has been discontinued for more than six consecutive months shall be required to resubmit an application in accordance with this Section in order to reestablish the special use. Phasing for the master preliminary plat shall not exceed a time period of up to 10 years, with not more than 48 months between each phase. If the land subject to the master preliminary plat is part of a larger parcel, the remaining land shall be shown as a remainder tract, but shall not be included within the master preliminary plat.

The boundaries of each phase shall be clearly shown on the master preliminary plat along with its assigned phase number. A proposed phasing schedule showing the proposed times for the beginning and end of each phase shall be provided, along with the number of acres and the land uses included in each phase. The phasing plan and schedule shall be submitted in the form and format prescribed by the Assistant City Manager of Development Services. The Assistant City Manager of Development Services shall publish procedures, forms, and standards to assist applicants in meeting this requirement.

Except for the exemptions provided in this Section, all plats shall conform to all other required pubic improvements including water and wastewater requirements set forth as subdivision requirements in Subsection. In the event that an applicant disagrees with a requirement of the Technical Review Committee, the applicant may send written notice of appeal concerning the requirement to the Assistant City Manager of Development Services.

The Assistant City Manager of Development Services shall consult with the appropriate department head concerning the matter and provide a response to the applicant prior to submission of the matter to the Planning Commission. In determining whether to approve, approve with conditions or deny a preliminary plat, the applicable review bodies shall consider the following criteria:.

By submission with the preliminary plat application, the waivers and preliminary plat can be reviewed in context and together. Once the application is filed it will begin a new application period. The waiver may be approved, approved with conditions or denied after consideration of the following factors:. Preliminary plats for developments that are not phased or not to be developed sequentially shall expire and be deemed null and void 24 months after approval unless a final plat is filed and approved for all of the preliminary plats within that time or unless the Planning Commission in its discretion, extends such period of validity.

No final plat for land subject to an approved preliminary plat shall be denied or delayed in processing for noncompliance with any requirement not set forth in this Unified Development Code or otherwise required by law. A final plat with a previously approved preliminary plat shall be approved if it meets all of the criteria:. The final plat shall not be recorded until it has been endorsed by the Assistant City Manager of Development Services and Development Services Engineer.

A final plat shall not expire if construction has been initiated and substantial progress continues toward completion of the improvements.

A determination that a plat has expired as a result of insufficient progress may be appealed to the Planning Commission within 30 days of notification that the plat has expired. An expired plat must be resubmitted to Development Services for processing as a new plat. The applicant may submit a written request for a time extension of six months. Such request shall be submitted no later than five business days prior to the last scheduled meeting of the Planning Commission immediately prior to the date of the expiration of said plat.

The fee for processing such request is published in the Development Services fee schedule, set forth in Chapter 14 of the Municipal Code. The provisions of this Unified Development Code are designed to assure that all costs of municipal infrastructure improvements borne by an applicant through the making of dedications, the payment of fees, or the payment of construction costs are roughly proportionate to the proposed development. Upon the request of the applicant , the City will retain a professional engineer who holds a license issued under Chapter , Occupations Code to make the determination that the proposed requirements satisfy the condition required in Section 3.

If the City and the applicant agree to utilize the services of a third party engineer to make such determination, the costs of such engineering determination shall be paid by the applicant. An applicant who disputes the determination made in Section 3. At the appeal , the applicant may present evidence and testimony under the procedures adopted by the City Council. After hearing any testimony and reviewing the evidence, the City Council shall make the applicable determination within 30 days following the final submission of any testimony or evidence by the applicant.

An applicant may appeal the determination of the City Council to a county court at law or district court in Nueces County within 30 days of the final determination by the City Council. The City may not require the applicant to waive the right of appeal authorized by this Subsection as a condition of approval for a development project. Minor, amending or vacating plats may be approved by the Assistant City Manager of Development Services in accordance with this Section. The Director for Planning shall review the application and, considering the review criteria in Subsection 3.

The Technical Review Committee shall consider the review criteria in Section 3. The minor, amending or vacating plat shall not be recorded until it has been endorsed by the Assistant City Manager of Development Services and Development Services Engineer. An approved minor, amending or vacating plat that has not been filed in the appropriate records of Nueces, San Patricio, Aransas, or Kleberg County within six months of its approval shall expire and be considered null and void.

Any further action shall require a new application and approval. Any replat without vacation that adds or deletes lots shall reference the original subdivision and lot boundaries. If a replat without vacation is submitted for only a portion of a previously platted subdivision , the replat shall reference the previous subdivision name and recording information, and shall state on the replat the specific lots which have changed along with a detailed purpose for replat statement.

A determination that a replat has expired as a result of insufficient progress may be appealed to the Planning Commission within 30 days of notification that the replat has expired. An expired replat must be resubmitted to the Department of Development Services for processing as a new replat. Such request shall be submitted no later than five business days prior to the last scheduled meeting of the Planning Commission immediately prior to the date of expiration of said replat.

Application for a special use exception shall occur in conjunction with the submittal of a site plan. The Board of Adjustment may not approve, approve with conditions or deny a special use exception application until after the site plan has been reviewed by the Technical Review Committee in accordance with the process established in Section 2. The Technical Review Committee shall review the application in accordance with the procedure established in Section 2. A day extension of the expiration or termination of the special use exception may be granted.

All requests by an applicant for extensions shall be filed with the Assistant City Manager of Development Services prior to the expiration or termination of the special use exception. A maximum of two consecutive extensions may be granted. Thereafter, the applicant shall apply for a new special use exception. In the event a special use exception is discontinued for more than six months, the holder shall be required to resubmit an application in accordance with this Section in order to reestablish the special use exception.

The following activities are exempt from the requirement for a dune protection permit, but are subject of the requirements of the Open Beaches Act and the rules promulgated under the Open Beaches Act, and may require a beachfront construction certificate in accordance with Section 3. In determining whether to approve, approve with conditions or disapprove a dune protection permit, the applicable review bodies shall consider the following criteria:.